The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint.
Osteoarthritis also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people.
Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals of various age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts your quality of life.
Pain, swelling, and stiffness are the common symptoms of any damage or injury to the knee.
Pediatric ACL Tears
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament that provides stability, reduces stress and prevents the knee from rotating or slipping out of position while jumping, running and landing.
Damage to any of these supportive structures causes instability of the knee joint. An unstable knee can be caused by the sudden twisting of the knee, tears of the meniscus, ligament or capsule, osteoarthritis of the knee (wear and tear of the cushioning cartilage tissue between the bones) and sports injuries.
Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint.
The knee is one of the most complex and largest joints in the body and is very susceptible to injury. The meniscus is a small, C-shaped piece of cartilage in the knee.
There are two wedge-shaped cartilage pieces present between the thighbone and the shinbone each called a meniscus. The menisci stabilize the knee joint and act as shock absorbers.
Knee Ligament Injuries
The knee is a complex joint that consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons that help in your joint’s movements.
The knee is a complex joint of the body that is vital for movement. The four major ligaments of the knee are anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL).
Iliotibial Band Syndrome
An iliotibial band is a tough group of fibers that runs from the iliac crest of the hip along the outside of the thigh, till the outer side of the shinbone, just below the knee joint.
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of the four major ligaments of the knee, is situated at the back of the knee.
Chondral or Articular Cartilage Defects
The articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of your body during activities such as running and jumping.
Lateral patellar instability is defined as a lateral shift or displacement of the patella (kneecap) as a result of disruptive changes in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and medial patellar retinaculum.
Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment.
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture
The quadriceps tendon is a thick tissue located at the top of the kneecap. It works together with the quadriceps muscles to allow us to straighten our leg.
Patellar Tendon Rupture
The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out.
Posterolateral instability, also known as posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI), is a common pattern of knee instability that results from injuries to the structures that support the outside of the knee joint, the posterolateral corner.
Posterolateral Corner Injuries
Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries are defined as damage to a complex area of the knee formed by the association of 3 main structures of the knee, namely popliteus tendon, popliteofibular ligament, and lateral (fibular) collateral ligament.
Knee dislocation is a condition that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint, namely the femur or thigh bone get separated from the shin bone.
Medial Patellar Instability
Medial patellar instability is a disabling condition characterized by medial subluxation of the patella which occurs as a complication of lateral retinacular release surgery.
Terrible Triad Injuries
A terrible triad injury can occur when the foot is firmly fixed on the ground and a strong force pushes the knee to the inside or causes a sudden twisting action.
Articular Cartilage Injury
Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint.
Bowed leg is a bony deformity resulting in outward curvature of one or both knees of the lower legs. It is commonly seen in toddlers and overweight adolescents.
Knee Sports Injuries
Trauma is any injury caused during physical activity, motor vehicle accidents, electric shock, or other activities.
Meniscus Root Tear
Meniscal root tears are characterized as soft tissue or bony root avulsion injuries or radial tears located within 1 cm of meniscus root attachment.
Women and ACL Injuries
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and helps stabilize the knee joint.
A fracture is a condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals, these fractures are caused by high energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident.
Tibial Shaft Fracture
A tibial shaft fracture is a crack or break in the middle section of the tibia bone due to severe trauma.
The kneecap or patella forms a part of the knee joint. It is present at the front of the knee, protecting the knee and providing attachment to various muscle groups of the thigh and leg.
Fractures of the Tibia
The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle.
Distal Femur Fracture
The femur or thigh bone is the longest and strongest bone in the body, connecting the hip to the knee. A femur fracture is a break in the femur.
Tibial Plateau Fracture
A tibial plateau fracture is a crack or break on the top surface of the tibia or shinbone in the knee joint. The fracture most often occurs following a high-intensity trauma or injury from the impaction of the femoral condyles over the tibial plateau.
Knee Stress Fractures
Stress fractures of the patella or knee are very rare. Approximately two out of 10,000 athletes may experience a patella stress fracture.
Tibial Eminence Fractures
The tibial eminence, also called the tibial spine, is a bony protuberance of the tibia (shin bone) that attaches to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint.
Stress Fracture of the Tibia
A stress fracture of the tibia or shinbone is a thin fracture, also called a hairline fracture that occurs in the tibia due to excess stress or overuse.
The patella, also called the kneecap, is a small flat triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint.